There are two main causes of melasma: radiation, whether ultraviolet, visible light, or infrared (heat) light; and hormones. Ultraviolet and infrared radiation from the sun are key in making melasma worse.
Treatment options for melasma include:
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When melasma appears, it can cause tan, brown, grayish brown, or bluish gray patches and freckle-like spots. These usually appear on certain areas of face like the cheeks, forehead, chin, and even above the upper lip. While less common, melasma can develop on the arms, neck, or elsewhere.
Triple combination cream (hydroquinone, tretinoin, and corticosteroid) remains the most effective treatment for melasma, as well as hydroquinone alone. Chemical peels and laser- and light-based devices have mixed results. Oral tranexamic acid is a promising new treatment for moderate and severe recurrent melasma.
Apple cider vinegar
Called melasma, this condition is believed to be treatable through the use of topical vitamin E. Studies show that hyperpigmentation may be only moderately affected by using topical vitamin E oil. The most effective way to use vitamin E to treat hyperpigmentation is to pair it with vitamin C.
Thyroid abnormalities were reported to occur with melasma. Skin pigmentation is a common manifestation in nutritional deficiencies and frequently associated with deficiency of vitamin B12 .
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With natural anti-inflammatory and UV-protective qualities, aloe vera may be useful as an adjunct therapy to standard treatments. Plus, aloe vera is naturally moisturizing. Since some types of melasma treatments dry out your skin, aloe vera can help rehydrate your skin.
In general, home remedies aren't incredibly effective at improving melasma. A few alternative remedies, like turmeric and aloe vera, have shown at least some success at improving melasma.
Papain, present in papayas, causes them to be the best home remedy for melasma. Mash a few pieces of papaya and mix it with honey. Apply the paste on affected areas and leave it for 20 minutes. Wash this pack off after 20 minutes.
Some proponents claim that potatoes can help lighten dark spots related to skin freckles, sunspots, and melasma due to a skin-bleaching enzyme called catecholase. In these so-called remedies, raw pieces of potato are blended with other acidic ingredients like yogurt and lemon juice to create a lightening face mask.
You can massage your face with a slice of raw potato as it helps in lightening the colour of your skin. Do not wash the slice before massaging the face as it will lose its natural properties and goodness.
Rubbing potato on the face in its raw form will provide the best results. Make sure to leave it in for about 25 minutes before washing it off with lukewarm water. Potato for the face can also be used as a natural sunscreen protecting you from skin burns.
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5. It helps fade hyperpigmentation. Since it impedes melanin production, vitamin C can actually fade hyperpigmentation. Hyperpigmentation — including sunspots, age spots, and melasma — occurs when melanin is overproduced in certain areas of the skin.
Though vitamin E has been used in various over-the-counter skin lightening creams, there is insufficient evidence on whether vitamin E oil can remove dark spots. The only evidence is that it can protect from the damaging effects of the sun and reduce depigmentation in melasma.
It repairs your skin tissue and protects your skin cells from the harmful effects of free radicals caused by UV exposure. Not only this, but vitamin C also helps you make your skin tone even and reduce the appearance of brown spots. The best way to fetch out its beauty benefits is by applying it topically on your skin.
Vitamin D is one of the best vitamins for your skin, along with vitamins C, E, and K. Making sure you get enough vitamins can keep your skin looking healthy and youthful. This could translate to a reduction in: dark spots.