Lithium helps reduce the severity and frequency of mania. It may also help relieve or prevent bipolar depression. Studies show that lithium can significantly reduce suicide risk. Lithium also helps prevent future manic and depressive episodes.
“It is the most mysterious drug in psychiatry,” says De-Maw Chuang, a biologist at the National Institute of Mental Health. “It's so small, but it is so powerful.” Unlike other psychoactive chemicals—large, complex molecules like Prozac (fluoxetine) or Abilify (aripiprazole)—lithium is extremely simple.
Mood-stabilizing drugs like lithium are prescribed to treat bipolar disorder and other co-occurring disorders. Teens who misuse these drugs may find that not only does lithium not produce a high, but it's also a toxic drug that can lead to dangerous side effects including death.
|Drug class||Mood stabilizer|
|ATC code||N05AN01 (WHO)|
Some of the best lithium stocks have already witnessed a sharp rally in 2020 and 2021. It's likely that the rally will sustain in 2022 and demand continues to grow. Lithium carbonate demand in 2020 was 305,000 tons. For 2021, it's expected that demand will increase to 452,000 tons.
It costs around $3-12 per gram.
Where is lithium available from? With 8 million tons, Chile has the world's largest known lithium reserves. This puts the South American country ahead of Australia (2.7 million tons), Argentina (2 million tons) and China (1 million tons). Within Europe, Portugal has smaller quantities of the valuable raw material.
The amount of lithium on earth is finite. However, by the time we reach its limit we will likely be mining asteroids which contain many metals such as lithium. A single asteroid can provide many orders of magnitude more lithium than all of the world's mines combined.
India does not have enough lithium reserves for manufacturing lithium-ion batteries and almost all electric vehicles in the country run on batteries imported mostly from China. “Lithium content in a cell is less than 4 percent (including electrolytes), so we still have the major portion of the cell for localisation.
More than 80% of the world's raw lithium is mined in Australia, Chile, and China. And China controls more than half of the world's lithium processing and refining and has three-fourths of the lithium-ion battery megafactories in the world, according to the International Energy Agency.
The Largest Lithium Producing Countries
|Country||2020 Lithium Production* (tonnes)||% of World Total|
Feb 9, 2022
For about a decade, scientists and engineers have been developing sodium batteries, which replace both lithium and cobalt used in current lithium-ion batteries with cheaper, more environmentally friendly sodium.
Lamotrigine. Lamotrigine (Lamictal) may be the most effective mood stabilizer for depression in bipolar disorder, but is not as helpful for mania. The starting dose of lamotrigine should be very low and increased very slowly over four weeks or more.
This is why the zinc-ion battery, which meets all these requirements, has such strong potential to replace lithium-ion in stationary energy storage.
Lithium may cause problems with kidney health. Kidney damage due to lithium may include acute (sudden) or chronic (long-term) kidney disease and kidney cysts. The amount of kidney damage depends on how long you have been taking lithium.
Lithium treatment in the range of 1 to 25 mM resulted in lifespan extension, whereas higher doses (50–100 mM) shortened lifespan (Figure 1A).
The NICE guidelines for bipolar disorder recommend that you gradually reduce your dose of lithium over at least four weeks. Ideally, you would reduce it over a period of up to three months. This is to lower your risk of relapse.
Some drugs and chemicals worsen incontinence, but they may not necessarily be the direct cause. These substances include alcohol, caffeine, diuretics, and lithium. As you can see, both men and women may experience UI. Not all patients have just a single type of UI.