the American Psychological Association
“APA” stands for the American Psychological Association. This is often the standard format used in the social sciences. It's a consistent way for writers to document sources and avoid plagiarism.
In most cases, your paper should include four main sections: the title page, abstract, main section, and references list.
The American Psychological Association, or APA, is the organization that created the language used and understood by academics around the world. APA style is the expected standard in higher education and research papers to ensure sources are cited properly.
MLA (Modern Language Association) format is used for humanities and literature works. APA (American Psychological Association) is used for technical and scientific works. Each writing style is formatted to make citations for that specific field easier.
To convert this type of in-text citation to an APA citation, remove the page numbers and enclosing parentheses. Leave a space after the author's last name, then insert an open parenthesis. Add the year of publication, followed by a close parenthesis. Leave a space, then continue the sentence.
MLA style is a referencing method developed by the Modern Language Association. It consists of two parts: a brief in-text citation in the body of your essay and a detailed list of the “Works Cited” at the end of the work. The following guidelines apply to any type of source, in any format.
The APA referencing style is an "author-date" style, so the citation in the text consists of the author(s) and the year of publication given wholly or partly in round brackets. Use only the surname of the author(s) followed by a comma and the year of publication.
Both APA and MLA cite sources within a paper by using parenthetical, in-text references. MLA uses the author's last name and the page number as reference. APA uses the author's last name and the year of publication. If a direct quote is used, APA requires author's name, year, and page number.
Include an in-text citation when you refer to, summarize, paraphrase, or quote from another source. For every in-text citation in your paper, there must be a corresponding entry in your reference list. APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Field, 2005).
MLA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the page number from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken, for example: (Smith 163). If the source does not use page numbers, do not include a number in the parenthetical citation: (Smith).
When citing a web page or online article in APA Style, the in-text citation consists of the author's last name and year of publication. For example: (Worland & Williams, 2015). Note that the author can also be an organization. For example: (American Psychological Association, 2019).
Basic format to reference a book
Feb 3, 2022
Digital Object Identifier
A DOI, or Digital Object Identifier, is a string of numbers, letters and symbols used to permanently identify an article or document and link to it on the web. A DOI will help your reader easily locate a document from your citation.
To cite a YouTube video in APA Style, you include the person or organization that uploaded it, their channel name (if different from their real name), the upload date, the video title (italicized), “Video” in square brackets, the name of the site, and a link to the video.
|Format||Last name, Initials. (Director). (Year). Movie title [Film]. Production Company.|
|Reference entry||Scott, R. (Director). (1979). Alien [Film]. Brandywine Productions.|
|In-text citation||(Scott, 1979, 0:45:14)|
Nov 5, 2020
Movie Title. Directed by First name Last name, performance by First name Last name*, Production Company, Year published. Netflix, URL.
Reference List: Common Reference List Examples
If you are directly quoting from a work, you will need to include the author, year of publication, and page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). Introduce the quotation with a signal phrase that includes the author's last name followed by the date of publication in parentheses.
Your essay should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5" x 11") with 1" margins on all sides. You should use a clear font that is highly readable. APA recommends using 12 pt.
(Year of Publication, Month Day if Given). Article title: Subtitle if any. Name of Magazine, Volume Number(Issue Number), first page number-last page number if given.