You inherit 1 set from your mother and 1 set from your father. To be born with sickle cell disease, a child has to inherit a copy of the sickle cell gene from both their parents. This usually happens when both parents are "carriers" of the sickle cell gene, also known as having the sickle cell trait.
Sickle cells that block blood flow to organs deprive the affected organs of blood and oxygen. In sickle cell anemia, blood is also chronically low in oxygen. This lack of oxygen-rich blood can damage nerves and organs, including kidneys, liver and spleen, and can be fatal.
The sickle cells die early, which causes a constant shortage of red blood cells. Also, when they travel through small blood vessels, they get stuck and clog the blood flow. This can cause pain and other serious problems such infection, acute chest syndrome and stroke.
Who gets sickle cell anemia? In the United States, the disease occurs most often among African Americans (in about 1 of every 400 African American births) and among Hispanics of Caribbean ancestry (1 in every 1,000 to 1,400 Hispanic American children).
The reason why so many black people have sickle cell, is that having the trait (so only one copy of the mutated allele) makes people more resistant to malaria. Malaria is a huge problem is sub-saharan Africa.
The pain may feel sharp, stabbing, intense, or throbbing. Some people with sickle cell disease say it's worse than childbirth or the pain after surgery. You may have pain anywhere in your body and in more than one place.
Stem cell or bone marrow transplants are the only cure for sickle cell disease, but they're not done very often because of the significant risks involved. Stem cells are special cells produced by bone marrow, a spongy tissue found in the centre of some bones. They can turn into different types of blood cells.
When both individuals are sickle cell carriers, the church discourages them from marrying. Some church denominations, especially in Enugu state, go further and refuse to wed couples when both individuals are sickle cell carriers.
Like most genes, individuals inherit one from each parent. Examples: If one parent has sickle cell anemia (SS) and the other parent has normal (AA) blood, all of the children will have sickle cell trait.
Type O negative
Type O negative red blood cells are considered the safest to give to anyone in a life-threatening emergency or when there's a limited supply of the exact matching blood type. That's because type O negative blood cells don't have antibodies to A, B or Rh antigens.
A-B-O incompatibility occurs when:
What is the difference between sickle cell trait and sickle cell disease? People with sickle cell trait carry only one copy of the altered hemoglobin gene and rarely have any clinical symptoms related to the disease. In contrast, people with sickle cell disease carry two copies of the altered hemoglobin gene.
Scientists believe the sickle cell gene appeared and disappeared in the population several times, but became permanently established after a particularly vicious form of malaria jumped from animals to humans in Asia, the Middle East, and Africa.
The sickle cells have membranes, stretched by their unusual shape, that become porous and leak nutrients that the parasites need to survive and the faulty cells eventually get eliminated quite fast by the organisms, destroying the parasite along the way.
People with sickle cell disease (SCD) start to have signs of the disease during the first year of life, usually around 5 months of age.
Medications. Hydroxyurea (Droxia, Hydrea, Siklos). Daily hydroxyurea reduces the frequency of painful crises and might reduce the need for blood transfusions and hospitalizations.
Among patients with sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease, the median age at death was 60 years for males and 68 years for females. The longer survival of females with both types of hemoglobinopathy is typical of the findings in black American and other normal populations.
No sex predilection exists, since sickle cell anemia is not an X-linked disease. Although no particular gender predilection has been shown in most series, analysis of the data from the US Renal Data System demonstrated marked male predominance of sickle cell nephropathy in affected patients.
Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disorder. Because it's a genetic condition someone is born with, there is no way to prevent the disease, so scientists are constantly investigating ways that the disease can be stopped before it passes to the next generation.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) affects millions of people throughout the world and is particularly common among those whose ancestors came from sub-Saharan Africa; Spanish-speaking regions in the Western Hemisphere (South America, the Caribbean, and Central America); Saudi Arabia; India; and Mediterranean countries such as ...